There have been several of these, but here are two interesting ones:
John D. Loudermilk's country music album Blue Train in most countries featured a photo of the artist in the studio, but the LP cover released in 1963 in South Africa had a picture of the original South African luxury Blue Train.
The first LP by British band Gravy Train from 1970 had a surrealistic scene on a train station that has clearly seen no maintenance for a long time. A dwarf reads a journal, a crash test dummy sits on a wheelchair and an outstretched arm reaches out of the waiting room window. The back cover featured the dwarf standing on the platform leaning over looking into the sunset along the track, presumably wondering where the train is. The music? Well, Jethro Tull-like flute over rocky themes with heavy fuzz guitar.